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万事博手机注册【8ir9y3s.buzz】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。丹阳迫白集团(原三明招旧缚电子有限公司)成立于1992年,占地面积18948平方米,晨丽贵宾会PTSKY豪华大蓝其中生产厂房占地9066平方米,仓库面积占地6180平方米。固定资产9188万元,流动资产0912万元,干部职工共581人,工程技术人员94人。万事博手机注册ZhangLipingInordertoadapttothescenarioafterentryintotheWTO,Chinahaslaunchedin2001theInternationalMarketDevelopmentFundforSmallandMedium-sizedEnterprises(SMEs)(hereinafterreferredtoas"IMDF"),SMEswithanannualexportvolumelessthanUSD15millionc,IMDFhadmaderemarkableachievementsinenablingSMEstogetaccesstointernationalmarketthroughvariouslinkssuchasoverseasexhibition,internationalcertification,overseasmarketpublicity,developmentofnewlyemergingmarket,training,%1inthepastfiveyears,morethantwotimesthatofthewholeSMEsatthesameperiod(%)andmuchhigherthanChinasaverageannualexportgrowthrate(30%).Itisnecessarytoevaluateensivejudgmentonthefollowingimportantissues:whetherIMDFisoperatedaccordingtodesignatedtargets,whataretherolesofIMDF,howmuchitcancontributetoexport,whataretheproblemsintheoperation,,MethodsandContentsoftheEvaluationObjectivity:Theprojectteamhasanalyzeddataandmaterialscollectedbycompetentdepartments,reviewedrelevantissuesbymeansofquestionnairesurvey,discussionsandvisitingenterprises,,questionnairesweresenttoenterprisesandtocompetentdepartmentsrespectivelythroughthewebsiteofIMDF,andreturnedthroughwebsiteorviadepartmentsofcommerceatvariouslevels,,541and12,132questionnaireshave,6,656werefromthoseenterprisesthathavenotreceivedanyfundsupportand5,(5,000)andofSMEs(46,000)registeredonline,%%edordeliveredvalidanswerstoeachquestion2,onlythosevalidanswerswereanalyzedinspecificquestions,:Theteammembershund,thoseenterprisesthath:Thisevaluationtriestosummarizetheachievementsandproblemsinthepast,sIMDF,,thefundvolumeisgettinglargerthoughremainssmallasawhole;secondly,thenumberofcompetentdepartmentshasbeenincreasinggradually,andrelatedpoliciesandadministrationshavebeenimprovedcontinuously;thirdly,:targetfulfillment,evaluatewhetherthegrantofIMDFconformstotheobjectivesandprinciplesoftheMeasuresforAdministrationofInternationalMarketDevelopmentFundofSME(fortrialimplementation)(hereinafterreferredtoastheAdministrationMeasures),andusethedatacollectedthroughquestionnairesurveystoevaluateIMDFpoliciesandtheirimplementationaswellasthefund,amathemlmarketInthepastfiveyears,thefundhasassistedSMEstogetaccesstointernationalmarketinrespectofsixcategoriesand19sub-categories(SeetheTablebelowfordetailedinformation).TheseitemsarethepivotallinksforSMEstocarryoutinternationalbusinessandareconvenientforimplementation,"guides",eventhoseenterpriZhangQi,Re,2005Chinabecametheworld’’srapidec,theimpactofitsstrategiesfortradeandinvestmentdevelopmentandforregionalcooperationontheprocesch20and21,2005,ChineseandforeignparticipantsparticipatedinatopicdiscussiononChina’’sDevelopmentProvidesOpportunitiesfortheWorldEconomyForeignscholarsandentrepreneurs,representedbyProfessorJosephStiglitz,aNobelPrizewinnerineconomics,believethatChina’seconomicgrowthisconducivetogreaterprosperityandstabilitytotheworldeconomyandbringsgreaterbenefitsanddevelopment,t,China’sexportswillreach8,,,China’,China’sexportproductsstructurewillcontinuetoupgrade,frompredominantlylabor-,,China’,hercountriesincludingresource-exportingcountries,,China’sattractionofforeigncapitalhelpstransnationalcorporationstoshareChina’sdevelo,,China’sopeningtotheoutsideworldandparticipationininternationaldivisionoflaborpromoteschanggattractedbyChinaconstitutethelastlinkinglobalindustrialchains,,ithashelpedothercountriestomovetotheisChinaintegratesmoredeeplywiththeglobaleconomy,itseconomics,theparticipantsemph,asanemergingdevelopingcountry,China’smodeofeconomicdevelopmentanditsexperienceinpovertyreductionareofunparalleledsignificancetootherdevelopingcountriesinmeetingt,therapiddevelopmentoftheChineseeconomy,,hasgreatlyheightenedthestatusandexpatwiththeriseofitseconomicstatus,Chinawillconstantl,hesays,Chinashouldplayevengreaterrolesinimprovingthemultilateraltradesystemandinpushingforwardmultilateraltradeneg,ChinashouldhelpdevelopingcountriesseekmorepeacefulenvironmentsfordevelopmentinthecourseofglobalizationandhelppushforwardtheDohaRoundoftradetalkssothatitcouldmakesubstantialprogressasf’stradegrowthandtheindustrialdevelopmentinEastAsiaForeignscholarsnotethatbecauseofdeeperandmoreelaboratedivisionoflabor,thegrowthinthe,thegrowthofthetradeinintermediateproducts,semi-finishe,theproportionso’,Japan,SouthKoreaandothercountriesinEastAsiahavemovedtheirfinallinkofproduction,especiallythelabor-intensiveprocessingandmanufacturingindustries,,,high-qualitylabor,ChinahasconcentratedonprocessingandproductionandexportedthefinalproductstoEurope,ChinaagainstotherEastAsiancountriesan,China’stradedeficitagainstitsneighboringAsianeconomiesexceeded160billiondollarsandits,esin0-2003period,China’sbilateraltradewithASEANcountriestookarapidlygrowingshareofthebloc’stotalforeigntrade,whileASEAN’smaintradepartners(theUnitedStates,theEuropeanUnionandJapan)’stradevolumehasbeenrisingrapidly,,theproportionofitstextileandapparelexporthasgonedown,theproportionofmachineryandelectronicexportsh’sexportstructureandthepartialshrinkingoftheASEANcountries’marketsharesinEuropeandAmerica,othercountriesandregionsinEastAsiabeganfeelingagrowingpressurefromChina’’selectronicsenterpriseshavepassedthetraditionalstageofassemblyandproductionandbegunparticipaeirindustrialpoliciesandraisingtheircompetitiveness,theyalsohopetocontinsoutthatasthelargesttradepowerinEastAsia,ChinahastheresponsibilitytomaintainandstrengthenthenewmodeofindustrialdivisionoflaborandthecoordinateddevelopmentoftheEastAsiancountrieswilldependheavilyonChina’houldberespectedandChinawillbecomethecenteroftheproductionchainofEastAsia’smanufacturingindustryandwil,ifChinaabandonsitscurrentcomparativeadvantagesandpromotesimportsubstitution(includingimportfromEastAsia),China’s,Japan,SouthKoreaandotherEastAsiancountrieshopetosolidifythecurrentindustrialdivisionoflaborbystrengtheningintra-regionalindustrialcooperationandtofixChinaasthelinkofprocessingandproductioncharacterizedbylaborintensityandlowaddedvaluesoastoma,theverticaldivisionoflaborbetweenthedevelopinganddevelopedmemberswillbesolidifiedsothatthedevelopingcountrieswilllosetheiropportunitiestodeveloptheiremergingindus,Chinashouldworkoutcorrectpoliciesforindustrialcooperationanddoallitcantoavoidsolidifyingindustrialdivisionoflabor.。

    ByLvGang,Re,2006Sincethepolicyofreformandopeningupwasintroduced,hugeprogresshasbeenmadeinChinasforeigntrade,withtotalexportvolumeincreasinginarapidandcontinuousmannerandtheshareofmanufacturedgoods,mechanicalandele,manypeoplebelievethatChinasexportsexportstructureThisis,infact,anissueofhowtoevaluateChinasindustrialstructurewhichismirroredinthecountry,itwouldbedifficulttojudgethedevelopmentphaseofChinasforeigntradeandindustrialization,andevenmoresotoestablishsuitablepoliciestofurtherraisethelevelofthecountry,thisarticleanalyzesthedevelopmentofChinasexportstructuresincethemid1990sandcomparesitwiththatofdevelopedcountrieslikeSouthKorea,Germany,hnologicalstructureofanationsexportsistoclassifytheminto8categoriesbyone-digitcodesoftheStandardInternationalTradeClassification(SITC)oftheUnitedNations,inwhichCategories0~4areclassifiedasprimaryproducts,Categories6and8aslabor-intensivepr,,notallironandsteelprsmore,thecharac[1]istoclassifyabout200products,usingthethree-digitSITCcodes,into5categoriesbytheintensityofRDinputs,namely,primaryproducts,resource-basedproducts,lowtechnologymanufactures,mediumtechnologymanufacturesandhightechnologymanufactures(SeeTable1below).,itfailstodistinguishtheRDintensitiesofthesameproductindifferentprocessingstages,,thismethodisapparentlymore,thisapproachisappliedintheanalysisofthisarticle.ByLiuShijin,,2007NeverbeforehasChinasener,Chinahasenteredandwillremainatthestageforquitealongperiodoftime,duringwhichtheconsumptionofresourcesincludingenergywill"climbup".Nomajoreconom,theshareoftheenergy-consumingheavyindustrywillrisebyafairlybigmarginandthe"structuralfactor"senergyconsumptionforperunitoutputhasbeenontherisewhi,theeffectof"super-largescale",,willsurpasstspercapitaenergyconsumptionisstillverylowwhencomparedwithinternationallevels,thetotalamountofenergyconsumptionhasfargonebeyondpeople,Chinahasmadesomeprogressinenergyconservationovertheyears,alandconceptualfactors,theprimarycauserestsmainlyonoursystems,,eventhoughtheyareinthesamei,whileChinaclaimstobeabigcountrywithrichresources,itspercapitalevelsinamajorityofignresources,butagrowingdependencyonforeignsupplyofsomeimportantresourcescannotbutcausepublicconcernsoverthecountrys"energysecurity".Forexample,C,resourceconstraintandespeciallyenergyconstraintareposingagravechallengetothesustainabilityofChina,wemusthaveacorrectapproachwhenobserving,,theso-called"resourceconstraint",a"resourceconstraint",senergystrategyandpoinoptimizingChinaoaloccupiesadominantpositioninthestructureofChinasenergysupply,an,withtheexploitablehydropowerresourcesaccountingforabout15%,Chinaspercapitapossessionofhydropowerresourcesisequivalenttoabout70%oftheworldaveragelevel,whichiswellaboveitsratiosforoilandnaturalgas(respectively11%%)andisclosetothatforcoal(79%).Chinare-investigateditshydropowerresourcesduringthe2001~thetheoreticalreserveofhydropowerresources,thetechnologicallyexploitablege,,Chinasratiobetweenthehydropowergeneratingcapac%,rankingaround80thplaceintheworldandstayingbelowtheworldaveragelevel(%).Itwasfarlowerthanthelevelofhydropowerresourcedevelopmentinthedevelopedcountries(50%~100%)andwasalsolowerthanthelevelsinBrazil,India,Vietnam,slagginghydropowerdevelopment,ersandcanprodundculturalsites,,irrationalplanning,designingandconstructionicalprotectionandonadoptingallmeasurestominimizetheu,weshouldalsoseethepositiveimpactsofhydropowerdevelopmentontheenvironmentandtheecology,forexample,inpreventingfloods,improvingthe,theconsiderablereturnsarisingfromhydropowerdevelopmentcanprovi"micro-environment","macro-environment"ofthewholenationaleconomy,hydropowerdevel,ressinhydropowercopowergeneratingcapacitycanaccountforarationalproportionofthetotalgeneratingcapacity,~,,,,missionofCO2,,coalconsumptionsavedbyhyd%.Sointhemicroeconomicsense,hydropowerdevelopmenthas,"cleaneffect"ofsubstitutingcoal-firedpowergeneration,hydropowershouldberegardedasacleanenergy....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.10-200米ByXuanXiaoweiResearchReportNo110,’:cultivatedlan[1]includingcultivatedland,water,forestry,energyandmineralreservesarefairlyhigh,’,,,,enlargerpopulation,theresultisthatthepercapitaposs,China’,’sover2,’spercapitapossessionofwaterresourcesisonly1,856cubicmeters,hortageofwaterresources,’,therdistinctfeatureofChina’’snationalterritoryandthedramaticdifferencesinthegeographicenvironmentandconditionsofvariousregionshaveledtotheextremeunevennessofthenaturalresourcedistributionamongvariousregions.。

    齐博AB视讯, Tothisday,Chinastillcarriesoutthesystemofdivisionalgovernanceinurbanandrural,ononehand,hasbroughtruralandurbanlandsunderdifferentlegalframeworkandunderthegovernanceofdifferentinstitutions,thusformingdifferentmarketandpowersystems;ontheotherhand,ithasgivenrisetoanimperativerequisitionoflandbythegovernmentsincaseofchangingtheagriculturallandstothelandsforconstructionputheagriculturallandsintothelandsforconstruct,likethelargestate-ownedenterprisesmonopolizingupstreamresources,edtothemajorityofinvestmentbeingsuppli,lawsarenotonlytheimportantguaranteeforthelocalgovernmentstosurviveandfunction,buthavealsoprecipitatedtheformationofthespecialincentivestrusale,themoredisposableincomesthelocalitieswillacquire;themorelandsthegovernmentspossess,thelessthecostwillbeforthecitiestoexpand,theeasieritwillbeforthecitiestoinvitea,taxation,banking,investment,formationofpricingmechanism,,itistheCentralGovernmentwhogetsholdofthelands,,asthelocalfinancedependsmuchonlandwhiletherelatedfinancialconditionscannotbeimproved,thelocalgovernmentswillthenhavetheimpulsetoloosenthecontroloverthelandsorevenmakeitalloutofcontrolthustofurtherunderplaytheCentralGovernmentscontroloverthelandsandtwiththeestablishmentofthedevelopmentpriorityzonesasastartingpoint,putsforwardthebasicprinciplesforformulatingthelandpolicyintheconstructionofthedevelopmentpriorityzonesandillustratestherelatedlandpoliciesintermsofoptimizeddevelopmentzones,importantdevelopmentzones,esasastartingpointAmongChinaseconomicdevelopmentplans,somearefive-yearplansfocusedoneconomicdevelopment,someareoverallplansforlandutilizationaimedatcontroloflanduseandprotectionofarablelands,andsomeareurb,whencarriedout,functionindependentlyandconflictwitheachother,,likeGDPgrowth,asthedominantfactorsandarecrucialfortheeconomicdevelopmentofanareaduringacertainperiodofti,fanareaand,ex,Chinaisnowinthestageofarapidurbanization,therefore,itisnotstrangeforthelocalgovernmentstoreviseorcompiletheurbanconstructionplanswithintwo-threeyearsucture,landtransferandtheprotectedvolumeofarablelandsunderagivenpaceofeconomi,astheeconomyandurbanizationinvariouslocalitieshavedevelopedmorerapidlythanexpectedandChinasfirstlandutilizationplanwasworkedoutin1997afterthereform,theplanisnotablycharacterizedbytheplannedeconomywithanevidentlylowerexpectancyfortheeconomicdevelopment,thusmakingtheoverallplansforlandutilizationfallfarbehindandtobecomelessandlessauthoritativeandev,,thenationaleconomyandsocialdevelopmentplanasthebasis,theurbanandlandplansasthestruttograduallysetuptheplanningsystemforlandstainabledevelopmentandcoordinatedregionaldevelopmentandth,importantdevelopment,limiteddevelopmentandprohibiteddevelopmentshouldbedistributedinascientificwayandshouldbedefinedbyLandPlanningLawsoastoimprovetheplanninginamorescientificway,toreducetheadministrativeinterventionandtodecreasetheconflictsandcontradictionsbetweenthelower-levellaws.ByZhangJunkuo,HouYongzhiXuanXiaowei,Departm,2006TheurbanandruralresidentsinChinahaveseenth~2005period,theincomeoftheurbanresidentsincreasedfrom343yuanto10,493yuan,whilethatoftheruralresidentswentupfrom134yuanto3,,theincomegapsbetweentheurbanandruralresidents,betweendifferentruralregionsandbetweendifferentgroupsoftheruralresidentshavewidened,’ssustained,,presentstateandfuturetrendoftheurban-ruralgapandtheintra-ruralgapisofvitalimportancetoformulatingunifiedstrategiesandpoliciesfordevelopingtheurbanandruralasisofanalyzingtheprese:thisgapha,thechangesintheincomegapbetweenChina’surbanandruralresidentsroughlyexperiencedfiveperiods(chart1).(1)Thegapwascontinuouslynarrowingfromtheearlyyearsofthereformtothemid-1980s.(2)Thegapwasconstantlywideningfromthemid-1980stotheearly1990s.(3)Thegaprapidlynarrowedinthemid-1990s.(4)Thegapwascontinuouslywideningfromthemid-1990stothefirstthreeyearsofthe21stcentury.(5),,theratioofthepercapitadisposableincomeof,%higherthanin1978.ByPanYaoguo,,dgrainconsumptionbytheChinesepeople,grainstockreducedbyurbanitesandsomefarmers,scientificprogressinanimalhusbandry,theimportsofnewbreeds,theapplicationofassortedfodderandtheshortenedbreedingperiod,itwouldbefeasibletoproduce,byusingthesameamountoffodderandinashortertime,abiggerquantityofhighqualitymeat,,,thedirec,theper-capitagrainconsumptionwas145kilogramsfortheurbanpeopleand256kilogramsfortheruralpeople,andin2005,thefigurewasonly77kilogramsfortheurbanpeople,a50%decline,,,theproportionofurbanresidentsinChina,withtheincreaseofaffluentfarmersinthedevelopedareasandwiththeriseofgrainsubstitutesinthediet,directgrainconsumptionbythemajorityoftheChinesepeopleisdeclining,an,,,wheathastobeimported,,thereisagreatpotentialformulti-purposeprocessingofcorn,,today,,mosturbanc,,wh,theper-capitaedcitieswhereindustriesarefairlydeveloped,mostfarmersmovotenough,farmershavetobuygrainsfromthemarket,,thereisenoughfarmland,butmostorallthefarmlandisusedtogrowmelons,,formostruralfamiliesinthetwoestablishedapple-growingregions,,theBohaiBayareaandtheLoessPlateauinNorthwestChina,vegetablegrowersinthesuburbanareasofcities,producersinfamousvegetableandfruitgrowingareas,theyu,themainfactordrivingthedevelopme,thefodderindustryhasbecomethemaindrivingforcefortheincreaseofChina,andnewprogresshasbeenmadeintheresearchster,and70%,thegrowingareaofsi,PigsandVehicleWillBreakOutProcessingcornintofuelethanolisanewindustrytriggeredbyjointforcesofthreefactors:first,thepriceriseofoiloninternationalmarketforcespeopletofindanoilsubstitutesoastocopewiththedifficultsituationoftherisingoilprice;second,majorcities,inordertosolvetheproblemofenvironmentalpollution,usefuelethanolasasubstituteforgasolineandasustainable,environmental-friendlyandrenewableenergy;andthird,,Heilongjiang,,asubsidyof1,600yuanfromthecentralfinancewasgrantedforeachtonofethanolproduced,in2004,thesubsidywas1,400yuan,1,,,,,,,cornhasbecomeanewmaterialforfuelproduction....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.万事博手机注册重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,ByLvWei,,2006Anationalinnovationsystemiscomposedoftheinteractingorganizationsparticipatingintheinnovationaswellastheexternalenvironment(,thefinancialsystem,educationalsystem,competingmodesandcorporateoperatingmechanism)thathasabearingontheinnovativeactivities;theinteractionofthecomponentsa,aninnovationsystemisnotnecessarilyasystemartificiallydesignedandconstructed,sInnovationSystemComparedwiththemajorinnovativecountriesintheworld,theexternalenvironmentofChina,andthegovernmentplaysanimportantroleindistributingvariousresources;theproportionofstate-ownedeconomyisstillfairlyhigh,andtheoperatingmechanismofstate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)andpublicinstitutionsisdifferentfromthatoftheprivateenterprisesunderthemarketcompetition;themarketmechanismisyettomature,thecapitalmarket,inparticular,isstillintheinitialstageofdevelopment,lmanagementsystem,therestructuringreformhasagreaterbearingontheinnovationsystemanddec,Chinaisabigcountryinteseconomyhavethefollowingcharacteristics:first,abigcountryintermsofthesizeofeconomy,,ChinassizeofGDPranksthefourthintheworld,anditsper-capitalevelofincomeisverylow,,thedomesticmarketishuge,,;ontheotherhand,Chinaisthethirdlargesttradingpoweranditsdependenceonimportsandexportsexceeds60%(withitsdependenceonexportsbeing30%~40%).Chinaisalsooneoft,therefore,Chineseenterpriseshavetocompetewithth,,theregionalgapindevelopmentandincomeishugewiththefactthatthedeveloped,developingandunderdevelopedregionscoexist,andtherefore,,thedevelopmentofhigh,mediumandlow-techindustriesisfairlybalanced,,oftheincrementalvalueofthemanufacturingindustry,theaddedvaluefrommediumtechnologyindustriesaccountedfor60%,thevalueoflow-techindustriesaccountedforabout25%,andthevalueofhigh-techindustriesaccountedforabout14%.Thehigh-techindustriesinthedevelopedcountriesusuallyaccountforahigherpercentage,whileinthedevelop,ChinasRDinputintensityislowerthanthosedevelopedcountriescharacterizedbyknowledge-intensiveindustries,,anditstechnologicaldevelopmentischaracteri,however,,thegrowthrateofChina,%ofitsGDP,,theproportionofinvestmentinbasicresearchandappliedresearchmaintainastablegrowth,,theannualaveragegrowthrateofthegrossoutputvalueofhigh-techindustrieswasashighas24%,andin2004,theexportsofhigh-techproductsaccountedfor28%,internationallycompetitiveenterpriseshasemerged,,assimilative/,thevolumeofprocessingexportsexceeds50%,andoftheexportsbyhigh-techindustries,morethan90%novationpolicies,,financialallocationfromthecentralfinanceforscienceandtechnologynearlydoubledthatintheyear2000,%and4%(SeeTable1).Thegrowthoffiscalallocationbylocalgovernmentsforscienceandtechnologywassimilartothatbythecentralgovernment,andthetotalamountofallocationbylocalgovernmentswasabout60%oftheallocationbythecentralgovernment,anditwas65% CompositionofExpensesforScientificandTechnologicalActivitiesByXiaBinChenDaofuResearchReportNo108,tionExpectationIncreasestheShort-TermPressureuponForeignExchangeGrowthThecurrenttradeimbalancebetweenChinaandtheUnitedStates,industrialcapitalintheUnitedStatesbegantomovetothedeve"doubledeficits"andasChinahasbecomeoneofthefastest-growingeconomiesintheworldnotedforitssoundinvestmentenvironmentandcheaplaborforce,,theUnitedStatesasadevelopedcountryhasbecomeadebtorcountryandhasbeenbothecurrenthighrateofeconomicgrowth,,whatcanbechangedisthatthetradeimbalancebetweenChinaandtheUnitedStatesisreplacedbythetrad,itissafetosaythatsolongasChinacontinuestomaintainitssoundpolicyenvironment,itstradeimbalancew,thegrowthofChinahasindicatedthatthesharpgrowthofChinasforeignexchangereserveinthepasttwoyederalReservewhenitwasledbyitsformerchairmanAlanGreenspan,,mostinterna,theamountofChinassurplusofforeignexchavechangedfromoutflowintoinflow,whichshowsadistinctchangeinthestructureofChinanexcheserveInessence,foreignexchangereserveisatypeofliquida,exsforeignexchangereservehasbeencontinuouslyrisingtothecurrentlevelofmorethan850billiondollars,,money,ins,,itwillboostth,itmayundercutt,itisunfavoraionalsavingshavesettledinthecourseofeconomicact,moneyisurgentlyneededtosolvemanydifficulthistoricalproblemsleftoverinthecourseofreformssuchastheissueofagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,thedevelopmentofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,thehugeamountofnonperformingloansoffina,lendingmoneytoforeigngovernmentsatrelativelylowinteres,"dollarhegemony""dollarhegemony"usuallyignoredtheinterestsofothercountriesandalwaysuseddollarrevaluati,,,interestratewarsandevenothersanctionsimposedbyafewcountriesaredetrimentaltotheformationofaninternationaleconomicenvironmentthatisnecessaryforChina,therefore,maintainingaproperamountofforeignexchangereserveandimprovingitsusageefficiencyofforeignexchangereservewillhelpraisethegrowthrateofthenationaleconomy,lessentheunevennessoftheeconomicstructure,fundamentallyreducethepossibilityofbalanceofpaymentsimbalances,andeventuallyenhancethestabilityofthecountry,acountryonlyneedsanamountofforeignexchangereservethatisenougherve.ByZhuDantao,,2006Asruralfinancehasbeenplayingakeyroleinpromotingbankdeposits,allocatingfundsanddiversifyingrisks,ithasarousedgreatc,anyreformonruralfinancemustbebasedonadeepunderstandingofitscharacteristics,udymorecomprehensive,tmentofRuralEconomyoftheDevelopmentResearchCenterofStateCouncil(HereinafterreferredtoasDRCSurvey)in2005,whichcovered29provinces(municipalitiesorautonomousregions).Atotalof1962validquestionnairesonpeasanthouseholdswerereceived,plusanother133onvillagesand206onsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(SMEs)nSichuanProvinceduring2003-2004(HereinafterreferredtoasSichuanSurvey).Thesurveywasconductedinfourcountiesfromfourareas(withonecountyfromonearea):plainarea,hillyarea,mountainareaneartheSichuanBasinandtheareainhabitedbyethnicgroups,sity(CAU)andtheAsianDevelopmentBank(ADB)inTongrenofGuizhouProvince(HereinafterreferredtoasTongrenSurvey)duringJuly2005,,complementingandverifyingeachother,whichhelpstogiveusacomprerallyspeaking,asaresultofdifferentproductionandorganizationmodeintheruraleconomy,thefina,socialtransitionsandculturaltrrcredits,savings,insuranceandotherfinancialservices,(1)LowyieldsandhighrisksAsChinasagriculturalproductionischaracterizedbysmallscale,lowtechnologyandpoormarketaccessibility,theeconomicreturnonitisgenerallylowerthanonotherindust,agriculturalcreditbearshighermarketrisksasagriculturalproducthaslesssupplyelasticityandagriculturalproduction,agriculturalcredithastobearnaturalrisksthatarecausedbyagriculturesesdifferentrequirementstoruralfinancialinstitutionsintermsoftheircommercialization,marketizationandorganizationsintheruralfinancialmarket.(2)SeasonalityandtimelinessThewidespreaduseofmodernscienceandtechnologyhasnotchangetheseasonalityofagriculturalproduction,whichresultsintheseasonalityofagriculturalloandemandf,theTongrenSurveyshowsthatamongatotalof433loansfrom2002totheendofJune2005,%%.Whenaskedaboutthedesiredloanterm,%%chooseabove1year,whichindicates,,,consideringnaturalandmarketrisksofagriculturalbusinesswhichleadtotheuncertaintyofproductionandsales,,pressingandhaphazardry,(3)SmallloansThelandco,sm,,the,899loans,witheachloanaveragingRMB8,244yuan,andloanslessthanRMB5,%,mostlysmallloans,wereextendedtothesurveyedruralenterprisesduring2001~2004,%sesarehuge,tions.(4)LackoftraditionalpledgeThereisanacuteshortageofpledgesinrur,exceptforthelanduserightofcollective-ownedwastelandthatfarmershavecontracted(provided,however,thatthepriorconsentofthecontract-awardingpartyissecured),orthelanduserightofcollectively-ownedlandthatisoccupiedbypledgedbuildings,shouseisabasicnecessityofhislifeandcannotbemortgagedinrealsenseand,whatismore,thelandhishouseoccupiescannotbemortgagedeither,sproductivepropertiescanhardlybesoldinthemarket,,%itproductsthatdonotneedtraditionalpledgesandtoexpandthescopeofacceptablepledges....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Themodeoforiginalinnovationmea,Vimicrohasindependentlydevelopedandpossessedseveralworld-classmultimediacoretechnologiesandAnbotehasesrapidlyenhancetheirtechnologicalcapacitiesthoughtheyarenotnecessarilythecreatorsofcoretechnologies,buttheenterprisespreliminarilyhavethedevelopmentcapacities,theiroveralltechnologicalcapacitieshavereachedthelevelsoffirst-rateenterprises,pportunitiesarisingfromthetransitionofmobng-upandsurpassinginnovation,animportantbasisoftheircorec,,ithasseizedtheopportunitiestoparticipateinmajormarkets,TCL,BaosteelandDouble-Cranehaveallcarriedoutproduct-orientedortechnology-orientedinnovationsafterimport,theirproductionandtechnologic,theybegantograduallycarryoutmoreadvancedtechnologicalinnovations....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ByChenXiaohongResearchReportNo244,nAccordingtoNationalStrategiesandthePrincipleofaMixedEconomyThe15thPartyCongresssettheprincipleofadjustingthestate-ownedeconomicdistributionandchangingtheoverlyextensivelayoutofthestate-ownedeconomy,titute"advanced"modesanddomainsinthenationalstate-ownedeconomywhiletheconditionsandpolicyforthe"withdrawal",quiteafewprovincesandmunicipalitieshavecomeupwithideasontheadjustingthestate-ownedeconomicdistribution,andmany"withdrawals",relevantproblemshavenotbeenwellsolved,"advancement"and"withdrawal"isnotjustrelatedtoordinaryinvestmentorcivilandcommercialissues,t,orthesectorswhichthestatemustcontrol,[1]:thecommonmarketfailuresthatdevelopedcountriesalsoexperience;marketfailuresindevelopingcountrieswhichoccurinless-developedmarketsandeconomies;,accordingtothe15thPartyCongress,aremainlythoseconcerningstateeconomiclifelinesandnationalsecurity,majorbasicfacilities,,thegovernmentmayconsiderreducingandevenwithdrawinginvestment;whentheeconomicandsocialregulationsregardingsecurityandpublicbenefitsgraduallyimprove,andthesectorscanbeadjustedandcontrolledthroughregulations,thestatewillbeabletoensurethatenterprisesinthesesectorsservestatepolicygoalswithoutrelyingonorbyrelyinglessonpropertyrightcontrols;andwhentheinvestmentmanagementsystemcombiningpublicandprivatefactorsandrelevantinstrumentsimproves,thegove,state-ownedeconomiccontrolreferstothefactthatsomeimportantenterprisesinthesesectorsarecontrolledbythestatethroughinvestment,nott,unlesstheyhavespecificpublicpolicy(suchasindustrialpolicy)goals,,underneutralstatepolicy,existingstacontrollingthestate-ownedeconomy,suchasshareholding,,itisunclearwhetherstate-ownedenterprisescancontinuetoholdafairlylargeoracertainproportionofshares;whetheritisnecessaryforthestatetoinvestinhigh-techfields,automobilesandfinance,wheretheprivateeconomyhasnotbeenstrongenough,thestateeconomyshouldbeallowedtoownafairlylargeproportionofmarketshare;estinstate-ownedenterprisesandmaketheirowninv,’sprivateeconomicsectorsanditscapitalstrengtharenotstrongandwhendomesticenterprisesinimportantindustriesfacetechnologicalormarketrisks,thestatehastheresponsibilitytousesuchmeansasinvestmentandresourcecontroltosupportdomesticenterprises—thegovernmentofChina,asagovernmentofadevelopingcountry,shoulddosomethingtocopewiththesecond-typeofmarketfailure;someindustriesarerelatedtoeconomicsecurity,soitmightbenecessaryforthestatetocontrolorholdsharesinthembeforeamoreefteeconomyoccupiesaconsiderableproportionSomepeopleinsistthatthesdustriesprio,wherethescientificandtechnologicallevelisrelativelylow,thegreatestrisk,thesemi-conductor,TFTandautomobileindustriesthathavebeendevelopedinrecentyearsbyintroducingforeigntechnologiesfacingthegreatestrisk—(local)governmentinvestmentandpolicysupportthathelpssuchenterprisesgetstartedanddeveloped.、万事博手机注册用户至上Lucky手机版APPWangWeiProvisionsoftheAntitrustLawthatdefineitsscopeofapplicationrevealtheAntitrustLaw’sstatusasan"economicconstitution"forafreemarketeconomy,whileprovisionsonexceptions(orexemptions)createabalancebetweeandadjustmentmechanismsthatmightbeusedtogovernChina’esandlegislationaswellasthep’sAntitrustLaw:theLawShouldBeAppliedUniversallyAsthe"economicconstitution"ofamarketeconomy,antitrustlawisessentiallyaptoAntitrustLaw("extra-territorialeffect"),,ofcourse,subjecttotheprinciplesofinternationallaw,internationalcooperationinenforcement,,thevariousAntdingthoseinvolvedintheproductionandsellingofcommodities,butalsothoseinvolvedinmodernservicesandculturalindustries,suchasfinance,medicine,education,,relaxedregulationandstimulatedcompetition,thescopeofAntitrustLawshou,whichimpedesoraffectscompetition,includingenterprises,associations,practitioners(suchaslawyers,accountantsanddoctors)andtogovernmentaldepartmentsorunitsthatimpede,theAntitrustLawshouldbeapplieduniversallyandnotonlytoaparticularsector,’sAntitrustLawShouldNotExplicitlyCoverTooManyExceptionsWhiletheprincipleofuniversalapplicationisessential,inordertoachieveharmonybetweentheAntitrustLawandothereconomicpolicies,socialdevelopmentobjectivesandpublicinterests,AntitrustLawsinmostcountriesprovi,duringthepracticalapplicationofAntitrustLaws,differentcountrieshaveadopte,thecontentsandexemptionmodelo,Japanprovidedfor100exceptions,throughindustrialpoliciesandlegislations,duringitshigh-speedgrowthperiod;now,,sdirectlyintheanti-trustlaw,whilefurtherexceptionsareprovidedinrelatedbytradeunion,orunionsofemployees,involvingissuesofhiring,,whichareprovidedtocertainorganizations,suchasfishingoragriculturalones,,whenChina’sAntitrustLawremainslargelyunderdeveloped,Chinam,thelawcanexpresslyhighlightthepartialrestrictionofcompetitionthatspringsfromthenecessaryprotectionofintellectualproperty,,andcurrentexceptionsdeletedormodified,heAntitrustLawtoMakeitBalancewithOtherSocialandEconomicDevelopmentObjectivesSinceexceptionswhichmaybedirectlyprovidedintheAntitrustLawarelimited,forthetimebeing,dreformpoliciesand,inmanyrespects,itisofgreatimportancetoestablishadynam,themechanismsmeanttoadjustthescopeofappli,conditionsandproceduresforcertainindustriesandsectorsthroughspeciallawsandregulations,itrustLawsandothersocialandeconomicobjectives,butalsoavoidsagreatnumberofdifficultiesthatmightariseduringtheimplementati,itisofnolessimportancetoprovideforproceduresandrulesforgrantingexceptions,whichdefineconditions,approvalprocesses,,proceduralrulesforexceptionsfallintothefollowingcategories.ByZhangJunkuoResearchReportNo047,2006Theimportanceofcompetitiononraisingeconomicefficiencyandim’sreformandopening-upisthatwhereverthestatemonopolyisbrokenandcompetitionisintroduced,vitalitywillbeinjected;theproductandservicequalitywillbeimproved;whereverthestatemonopolyismaintained,theproductandservicequalityareno,economicpracticehasalsoprovedthattheimprovementofeconomicefficiencyisnotonlydeterminedbytheopeningofaccessandintroductionofcompetition,,orderlyandfairmarketcompetitionisc,disorderlyandunfaircompetitionwilldamageeffectivenessofmarketmechanism,,maintainingasoundcompetitionorderi,howtoguaranteeasufficient,orderlyandfairmarketc,competitionpoChangesTheoretically,,regulations,,regulations,policyand,inadditiontothecompetitionpolicyinanarrowsense,suchpolicyalsoinvolvesthepoliciesofprivatization,deregulation,subsidy,internationaltradeandforeigninvestmentpolicies,eandimp,themainfactorsrestrictingthemarketcompetitionmayvarywithdifferenteconomicsystems,differentstagesofe,fordevelopedWesterncountrieswherethemarketsystemsaremoremature,legalsystemsaremorecompleteandgovernmentconductsaremorestandardized,theproblemsinadministraelargesizeofenterprises,theprobleminbusinessmonopolyisusuallyprominent,andthefocu,theessentialproblemisobviouslynottocheckunfaircompetitionorbusinessmonopoly,astheeconomyisbasicallybuiltontheplannedeconomy,whichismonopolizedbythestate,are,first,hoketeconomy,theproblemssuchasnon-standardizedmarketentities,unfaircompetition,includingmisuseofdominantpositioninthemarket,monopolyagreementsandmarketconcentration,theywouldobviouslybecomeaprominentproblemthatneedstobestressedbythecompet,foraneconomyinthecourseofsystemictransformation,,theproblemsthatfacepromotingand(forinstance,intheearlyperiodofsystemictransformation),themainissueisnottotacklebusinessmonopoly,buttoinentanti-monopolylaws,buttotransfergovernmentfunctions,establishmarketrulesandreformcorporatesystems,fChina’sReformBeforetheimplementationofreformandopening-uppolicyin1978,’;,,,in1978,morethan77%oftheindustrialoutputvaluewascontributedbythestate-ownedenterpriseswhilecollectivefirmsturnedoutmorethan22%.,,,Chinastartedtoimplementthemarket-orientedpolicyofreformandopening-up,thecorecontentwastochangetheplannedsystem,,manyofthereformpolicies,suchasderegulatingandgivingupthecontrolofmandatoryplans,reformingstate-ownedenterprises,developingprivateenterprisesandlooseningthepricecontrol,,,,,thecountryisfacingexcessivecompetition,notinadequatecompetition.’sGDPGrowthRateandTheirConvergenceandDivergenceAnalysisInthelightofthedivergenceofactualGDPgrowthrateandpotentialgrowthrate,China’seconomicgrowthhaswitnessedshort-term,medium-andlong-termandlong-termendogenousfluctuationswithanaveragerangeof6,,governmentpoliciesandworldeconomicsituationshavedealtmajorexternalshocks,whichthenchangethedirectionofeconomicfluctuationandevenchangethedirectionoftheshort-te,theexternalshconvergenceanddivergenceanalysisWeusethedivergenceoftheactualGDPgrowthratearacteristics:(1)Thepolicyfactorsandaccidentalshocks,theseweretheperiodswhengreatfluctuationsoccurredtoGDPgrowthratesandwhenmajorpolicyadjustmentsweremadeorthecountrywashitbyseriousaccidentalshocks,suchasthe"GreatLeapForward"andthree-yearmajornaturaldisastersfrom1958to1964,andtheAsianfinancialcrisisin1997.(2)ariousperiods,theshortestbeingtwoyearsandthelongestbeingtwelveyears.(3)Thefluctuatt-termpotentialgrowthrates.、DVORsFundamentalEconomicConditionsAreAbletoSupporttheSustainableDevelopmentofitsStockMarketAlthoughSomeStructuralIrrationalDevelopmentIsAlreadyVisibleatPresentChinasstockindexhasrisenfromthelowest998pointsin2005tothecurrentlevelofmorethan4,000points,,thissurgeatthebeginningreflectedthecorrectiontotheoriginallyunder-estimatedvaluefollowingthenon-tradablesharereform,anditwasalsolinkedwiththesustainedrapidgrowthofnat,,institutionalinvestorsbecamesocautiousthattheywereleftwithnochancetobuybetevendaretoholdtheirowncompanies,,turnoverrateisclosetohistoricalhighrecordduringthesurgingperiodofthemarketandthenumberofnewlyosprice-earningratio(PE).Withthestockindexstayingatabout4,000points,themarketPEsho,however,,Chinasmacroeconomyhasmaintainedasustainedandrapiddevelopmentinrecentyearswithcompanies,%over2005,,,amajorsourceoftheincreasedprofitwasamuchmoreinvestmentreturn,whichwasaresultoflistedcompaniesholdingeachotherssharesandmayalsoreflectedthefactthatsomelistedcompaniescarriedforwar,%,%,theprofitgrowthin2007waslinkedwiththemodificationofaccountingsystemwhichbroughtforthone-timeincomewhichledtoa10%,mergersacquisitions,,,itisnotadvisabletojudgewh,therapidgrowthmomentumatpresenthasshownsomeirrationalelements,orstructuralirrationality,,itshouldberecognizedthatthestructuralirrationalityforthemostpartreflectsthedeficiencyofthestockmarketsystem,ustpassstrictformalities,alistedcompanyisavaluable"shell",assetsrestructuringsuchascapitalinjectionorborrowing"shell",theseeventsarenotlikelytocaus,however,duetotheexistenceofmarketsegmentationandhencetheliquiditypremiumbetweenassetsoflistedcompaniesandthatofnon-listedones,aswellasthefactthattransactionsarenotconductedaccordingtomarketvalues,whichisrelatedtoChina,plusthemuchattentionofthegovernmenttotheexcessivelyfastgrowthoftheindex,mosti,itmig,"speculations"tedsimplythroughsuchindicatorsasblue-chipstocks,andthatweshouldnotre,,taxisbasedonstatepowerandshouldnotbeeasilyusedasafrequentmeanstoadjuststockmarket,butrather,,itisnotnecess,erentopinionsamonginternationalscholarsaswellastheimplementationofmonetarypoliciesoverwhetherassetsprices,especiallystockprices,shouldbetakenasanobjectforregulationbycentralbanks,acentralbankshouldnotinterveneaslongasthefluctuationisnotcausedbydistortion,,,consideringthefactthatassetsmarketregulationrequiresintensemonetarypolicyandthedifficultytochoosetherighttimeforintervention,mostcentralbanksarecautiousonthisissu,itisrath,however,,maybeitisnotwrongtotakearelaxedmonetarypolicywhentheJapaneseYenappreciatedalot,butmaintainingitforalongtimeregardlessofthesoaringassetspricesandfailingtotightenmonetarysupplytimelyisthemainreasonfortheassetbubbles....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.XieFuzhan,LiuShijin,LuZhongyuan,LiJianwei,WangZhaoXuanXiaoweiAfteraperiodofacceleratedgrowthfrom2002to2004,"wasstabilizedatahighlevelandshowedadeclinefromthehighlevel,"employmentincreased,theinvestmentgrowthratedeclinedfromahighlevelandthenstabilized,consumerdemandcontinuedtogrowsteadily,thepriceleveldroppedsteadily,fiscalandfinancialoperationswerestable,andth,newproblemsaroseindomesticeconomicoperations,suchasabigincreaseinthenumberofloss-makingenterprises,theemergenceofsurplusproductioncapacityinsomeindustries,difficultyinincreasingfarmers’lsoincreased,mainlyaggravatedtradefriction,oilpricesthatstagnatedatthehighlevelandthepotentialforeconomicslowdownsintheUnitedStates,:TheChineseeconomywillmaintainastableandfastgrowthtrendthisyearandnextyear,andthisgrowthrateisestimatedtobeabout9%.Nextyearwillseeacontinuedmoderatefiscalandmonetarypolicy,deepenedreforminkeysectors,andeffortstopromotethetransformationofthemodeofeconomicgrowth,soastobuildasolidfoundationfo’sEconomicTrend:theEconomyWillMaintainaHighandStableGrowthRateandShowSignsofSlightDecline,ThereIsSlimProbabilityofanyBigDeclineorRemarkableRebound,ButMoreAttentionShouldBePaidtotheMarginofDeclineJudgingfromthedevelopmentsofmajoreconomicindicatorsasGDP,investment,consumptiondemandandprice,China’seconomicoperationhasbeguntoslowdownfromitsgrowthpeakinthefourthquarterof2003,:first,%%forfiveconsecutivequarters;growthratesinthesecondaryandtertiaryindustriesdroppedandstabilizedatabout11%and8%%%inthefirstsevenmonthsofthisyear,adeclinereflectingareasonableadjustment,,thegrowthrateoffixedassetinvestment,%inthefirstquarterof2004,basicallystabilizedatabout27%,withinvestmentsintherealestate,ironandsteel,buildingmaterials,petrochemicalandelectricpowerindustriesdecliningremarkably,andwithinvestmentsinsectorsasmachinebuilding,farmandsidelineproducepro,consumerdemandcontinuedtogrowsteadily,anditsgrowthrate,afterdeductingpricefactors,wasbasicallystableatabout11%inthefirsteightmonthsofthisyear,slightlyhigherthanthe10%,%%inAugustthisyear,thepriceindexforfactorsofproductionintheJanuary-Augustperiodwasbasicallystablebetween7%to8%.ThesteadygrowthtrendintheChineseeconomyindicatesthatmacro-controlmeasuresaretimelyandeffective,,thereisstillarelaumptionstructure,theacceleratingdevelopmentofheavyindustryandthequickeningurbanizationprocessthathelpspeeduptheeconomicgrowth,therearealsosomenewfactors:First,,thegrowthrateofinvestmentby%,%.Basedonthis,itisestimatedt%intheJanuary-Augustperiod,%.Underthecircumstancesofasharpdeclineininvestmentbystate-ownedenterprisesandaslightdropofforeigndirectinvestment(%intheJanuary-Julyperiodcomparedwiththesameperiodoflastyear),thelargeincreaseinnon-statein,regionalecon,theeconomicgrowthofthecentralandwesternregionswasgenerallyfasterthanthatofthecoastalregion;andinthecoastalregion,theeconomicgrowthofthenortherncoastalar,theindustrialgrowthrateofInnerMongolia,Jiangxi,Shanxi,Anhui,Henan,Hunan,Guangxi,SichuanandQinghaiinthecentralregionwasallabove20%.ThegrowthratesofindustriesandinvestmentinthenortherncoastalareasasShandong,HebeiandTianjinwereallmuc,theamountofindustrialaddedvalueofShandongProvinceexceeded,forthefirsttime,,thecomparativeadvantagesofChina’mberoftradedisputes,thetr,Chineseeconomicdevelopmentwillalsohavetofacenumerousshrinkingandunfavorablefactors,mainlyincluding:--,Chineseeconomicfluctuationsincludeshortcyclesoffluctuationscausedbychangesinenterpriseinventory,medium-termcyclesoffluctuationscausedbychangesinfixedinvestment,andlo(usually6-8years,withagrowthperiodlasting2-3years,andadeclineperiodlasting5-6years),theyear2004shouldbethepeakofthelatestroundofeconomicgrowthcycle,,thedeclineperiodofthisroundofcyclecouldbedelayed,%.Judgingfromthemediumandlong-termcycleofeconomicfluctuation(about11-12years),theyear2006willbethepeakforthenewroundofcycle,andthengro%,andtheGDPgrowthratefrom2005to2009couldmaintainanannualaverageofover8%.--Theprospectsforindustrialgrowthwillbestableandshowaslightdecline,,thegrowthrateofindustriessuchasironandsteel,buildingmaterials,petro,profitsofindustriesasbuildingmaterials,electricpower,autoandelectronicsdroppedsignificantly,riesinthesectorwilllikelyleadtoaslowdowninindustrialgrowthnextyear.--Theg,majorinternationalinstituti,EuropeanUnionandJapan,allmajortradepartnersofChina,,%%,%,%tyear.ByLuWei,,ationSystemKnowledgeinnovationreferstotheprocessofacquiringnewknowledgeofnaturalscienceandtechnologythroughscientificresearch(includingbasicresearchandappliedresearch).Theobjectiveofknowledgeinnovationistopursuenewdiscoveries,toprobeintonewrules,toestablishnewtheories,andoriginationsrelatedtoproducing,diffusingandtransferresearch-orienteduniversities,andotherhighereducationinstitutions,scientificresearchinstitutionsrunbyenterprisesandgovernmentagencies,;andtheknowledgeinnovati,especiallybasicresearch,hasalongcycle,andgreatuncertaintiesandrisks;ontheotherhand,itispublic-friendly,,,thegovernmentsofthosecountrieswithmaj:oneisinterest-orientedfreeexploringresearch,whichneednothavemarketorcommercialimpactsimmediately,yetmaybringaboutabreakthroughindiscoveryandformawholenewfield;,thecombinationofbasic,theinnovationmodelhaschanged,thedifferencebetweenbasicresearchandappliedresearchhasbecomesmaller,andthecontributiononthehi-techfieldhavecomeaboutthankstoth,importantinformationandcommunicationtechnologies,suchasglobe-widebroadbandinternet,internetbrowser,compatibletimesharingsystemofcomputer,intranet,andcomputerworkstation,wereallbroughtalongbysomeunexpecteddisc,butalsoisgoodforimprovingtheabilityofintegratedinnovation,andtheabilityoffurthe,thedevelopmentoftheMP3technologyshowsthat,lithiumbatteries,andLCDallcamefromachievementsandtechnologicalbreakthroughsinbasicresearchprojectsfundedbytheDefenseDepartment,theEnergyDepartment,theNationalScienceFoundation,NationalInstitutionsofHealthandtheNationalInstitute,itcanbeseenthatanotherimportanteffectofbasicresearchistoestablishaplatformtoassembleresearchpersonnelofhigherlevels,andtomaintainalargegroupo,thebasicresearchconductedbyAmericanuniversitiesattractedandassembledthebestresearchpersonnelfromallovertheworld,fosteringalargenumberofpeopleholdingbachelorsdegrees,mastersdegreesanddoctorsdegrees,andpost-doctoralresearchstaff,putinChinaTheChinesegovernmenthasalwaysattachedimportancetobasicresearch,,theCentralCommitteeoftheCPCissuedDecisiononEducationSystemReform,whichentrustedhigherlearninginstitutionswith"thetaskoftraininghigh-levelprofessionalsanddevelopingscientificandtechnologicalculture",puttingforwardthat"higherlearninginstitutionsandtheChineseAcademyofSciencesshoulderimportantresponsibilitiesconcerningbasicresearchandappliedresearch",andthat"basicresearchandappliedresearchshouldbecombinedwithpersonneltraining".Atpresent,38universitiesoutofover1,000havebeenapprovedbythestateasresearch-orienteduniversities;andinfact,someuniversitiesthathavenotgotthe,theLeadingGroupforStateScienceandEducationDevelopmentchosetheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS)tolaunchapilotprojectforbuildingthenationalinnovationsystem,owledgeinnovationcenterofnaturalscienceandhightechnology,which,withpowerfulandsustainableinnovationability,targetingnationalstrategicgoalsandinternationalscienceandtechnologyfrontier;tobuildtheCASintoascientificresearchbaseofinternationalhighlevel,abaseoftraininghigh-leveltalentedpersonnelandpromotingthedevelopmentofChinashi-techindustries;andtobuilditintoanationalbasewiththeknowledgeofscienceandtechnology,anationalbasewithadvancedscientificoutlookandanationalbaseequippedwithtalentsofscienceandtechnology,,inadditiontotheexistingNaturalScienceFoundation,otherprograms,suchastheDevelopmentPlanoftheStateKeyFundamentalResearch(973Program)andtheSpecialProjectinEarlyStageonKeyProgramsofFundamentalResearch,tatekeylaboratories,theconstructionofkeydisciplinaryareasinuniversities,andtheconstructionofthebasicc(1)Theoverallscientificresearchexpenditurehasbeenconsiderablyincreasing,withitsproportiontotheRDinputdecreasing,,theoverallexpenditureonscientificresearchinChinanearlytripled,mentinsociety,theproportionofscientificresearchexpendituretoRDexpendituredroppeddistinctly,from33%atthebeginningoftheNinthFive-YearPlanto26%,theproportionoftheappliedresearchexpendituretothetotalRDexpenditureinChinafirstdroppedandthenrose,yetne,%peryearonaverage,alittlebithigherthanthatoftheRDexpenditure,%%%.(Table1)Table1ChangeofChinasRDExpenditureStructure。

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